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Sample preparation techniques in analytical chemistry

Author: S Mitra
Publisher: Hoboken, N.J. : J. Wiley, ©2003.
Series: Chemical analysis, v. 162.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
Database:WorldCat
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Material Type: Internet resource
Document Type: Book, Internet Resource
All Authors / Contributors: S Mitra
ISBN: 0471328456 9780471328452
OCLC Number: 51518388
Notes: Includes index.

Westminster College McGill Library notes:
1
Description: xx, 458 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm.
Contents: Chapter 1: Sample preparation : an analytical perspective / Somenath Mitra and Roman Brukh --
1.1. The measurement process --
1.1.1. Qualitative and quantitative analysis --
1.1.2. Method of quantitation --
1.2. Errors in quantitative analysis : accuracy and precision --
1.2.1. Accuracy --
1.2.2. Precision --
1.2.3. Statistical aspects of sample preparation --
1.3. Method performance and method validation --
1.3.1. Sensitivity --
1.3.2. Detection limit --
1.3.3. Range of quantitation --
1.3.4. Other important parameters --
1.3.5. Method validation --
1.4. Preservation of samples --
1.4.1. Volatilization --
1.4.2. Choice of proper containers --
1.4.3. Absorption of gases from the atmosphere --
1.4.4. Chemical changes- 1.4.5. Preservation of unstable solids --
1.5 Postextraction procedures --
1.5.1. Concentration of sample extracts --
1.5.2. Sample cleanup --
1.6. Quality assurance and quality control during sample preparation --
1.6.1. Determination of accuracy and precision --
1.6.2. Statistical control --
1.6.3. Matrix control --
1.6.4. Contamination control --
References --
Section A: Extraction and enrichment in sample preparation --
Chapter 2: Principles of extraction and the extraction of semivolatile organics from liquids / Martha J.M. Wells --
2.1. Principles of extraction --
2.1.1. Volatilization --
2.1.2. Hydrophobicity --
2.1.3. Acid-base equilibria --
2.1.4. Distribution of hydrophobic ionogenic organic compounds --
2.2. Liquid --
liquid extraction --
2.2.1. Recovery --
2.2.2. Methodology --
2.2.3. Procedures --
2.2.4. Recent advances in techniques --
2.3. Liquid --
solid extraction --
2.3.1. Sorption --
2.4. Solid-phase extraction --
2.4.1. Sorbents in SPE --
2.4.2. Sorbent selection --
2.4.3. Recovery --
2.3.3. Methodology. 2.4.5. Procedures --
2.4.6. Recent advances in SPE --
2.5. Solid-phase microextraction --
2.5.1. Sorbents --
2.5.2. Sorbent selection --
2.5.3. Methodology --
2.5.4. Recent advances in techniques --
2.6. Stir bar sorptive extraction --
2.6.1. Sorbent and analyte recovery --
2.6.2. Methodology --
2.6.3. Recent advances in techniques --
2.7. Method comparison --
References --
Chapter 3: Extraction of semivolatile organic compounds from solid matrices / Dawen Kou and Somenath Mitra --
3.1. Introduction --
3.1.1. Extraction mechanism --
3.1.2. Preextraction procedures --
3.1.3. Postextraction procedures --
3.2. Soxhlet and automated Soxhlet --
3.2.1. Soxhlet extraction --
3.2.2. Automated Soxhlet extraction --
3.2.3. Comparison between Soxtec and Soxhlet --
3.3. Ultrasonic extraction --
3.3.1. Selected applications and comparison with Soxhlet --
3.4 Supercritical fluid extraction --
3.4.1. Theoretical considerations --
3.4.2. Instrumentation --
3.4.3. Operational procedures --
3.4.4. Advantages/disadvantages and applications of SFE --
3.5. Accelerated solvent extraction --
3.5.1. Theoretical considerations --
3.5.2. Instrumentation --
3.5.3. Operational procedures --
3.5.4. Process parameters --
3.5.5. Advantages and applications of ASE --
3.6. Microwave-assisted extraction --
3.6.1. Theoretical considerations --
3.6.2. Instrumentation --
3.6.3. Procedures and advantages/disadvantages --
3.6.4. Process parameters --
3.6.5. Applications of MAE --
3.7. Comparison of the various extraction techniques --
References --
Chapter 4: Extraction of volatile organic compounds from solids and liquids / Gregory C. Slack, Nicholas H. Snow, and Dawen Kou --
4.1. Volatile organics and their analysis --
4.2. Static headspace extraction --
4.2.1. Sample preparation for static headspace extraction --
4.2.2. Optimizing static headspace extraction efficiency and quantitation --
4.2.3. Quantitative techniques in static headspace extraction --
4.3. Dynamic headspace extraction or purge and trap --
4.3.1. Instrumentation --
4.3.2. Operational procedures in purge and trap --
4.3.3. Interfacing purge and trap with GC --
4.4. Solid-phase microextraction. 4.4.1. SPME method development for volatile organics --
4.4.2. Choosing an SPME fiber coating --
4.4.3. Optimizing extraction conditions --
4.4.4. Optimizing SPME-GC injection --
4.5. Liquid-liquid extraction with large-volume injection --
4.5.1. Large-volume GC injection techniques --
4.5.2. Liquid-liquid extraction for large-volume injection --
4.6. Membrane extraction --
4.6.1. Membranes and membrane modules --
4.6.2. Membrane introduction mass spectrometry --
4.6.3. Membrane extraction with gas chromatography --
4.6.4. Optimization of membrane extraction --
4.7. Conclusions --
References --
Chapter 5: Preparation of samples for metals analysis / Barbara B. Kebbekus --
5.1. Introduction --
5.2. Wet digestion methods --
5.2.1. Acid digestion-wet ashing --
5.2.2. Microwave digestion --
5.2.3. Comparison of digestion methods --
5.2.4. Pressure ashing --
5.2.5. Wet ashing for soil samples --
5.3. Dry ashing --
5.3.1. Organic extraction of metals --
5.3.2. Extraction with supercritical fluids --
5.3.3. Ultrasonic sample preparation --
5.4. Solid-phase extraction for preconcentration --
5.5. Sample preparation for water samples --
5.6. Precipitation methods --
5.7. Preparation of sample slurries for direct AAS analysis --
5.8. Hydride generation methods --
5.9. Colorimetric methods --
5.10. Metal speciation --
5.10.1. Types of speciation --
5.10.2. Speciation for soils and sediments --
5.10.3. Sequential schemes for metals in soil or sediment --
5.10.4. Speciation for metals in plant materials --
5.10.5. Speciation of specific elements --
5.11. Contamination during metal analysis --
5.12. Safe handling of acids --
References --
Section B: Sample preparation for nucleic acid analysis --
Chapter 6: Sample preparation in DNA analysis / Satish Parimoo and Bhama Parimoo --
6.1. DNA and its structure --
6.1.1. Physical and chemical properties of DNA --
6.1.2. Isolation of DNA --
6.2. Isolation of DNA from bacteria --
6.2.1. Phenol extraction and precipitation of DNA --
6.2.2. Removal of contaminants from DNA --
6.3. Isolation of plasmid DNA --
6.3.1. Plasmid DNA preparation --
6.3.2. Purification of plasmid DNA --
6.4. Genomic DNA isolation from yeast. 6.5 DNA from mammalian tissues --
6.5.1. Blood --
6.5.2. Tissues and tissue culture cells --
6.6. DNA from plant tissue --
6.7. Isolation of very high molecular weight DNA --
6.8. DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction --
6.8.1. Starting a PCR reaction --
6.8.2. Isolation of DNA from small real-world samples for PCR --
6.9. Assessment of quality of quantitation of DNA --
6.9.1. Precautions for preparing DNA --
6.9.2. Assessment of concentration and quality --
6.9.3. Storage of DNA --
References --
Chapter 7: Sample preparation in RNA analysis / Bhama Parimoo and Satish Parimoo --
7.1. RNA : structure and properties --
7.1.1. Types and location of various RNAs --
7.2. RNA isolation : basic considerations --
7.2.1. Methods of extraction and isolation of RNA --
7.3. Phenol extraction and RNA recovery : basic principles --
7.3.1. Examples of RNA isolation using phenol extraction --
7.4. Guanidinium salt method --
7.4.1. Examples of RNA isolation using guanidinium salts --
7.5. Isolation of RNA from nuclear and cytoplasmic cellular fractions --
7.6. Removal of DNA contamination from RNA --
7.7. Fractionation of RNA using chromatography methods --
7.7.1. Fractionation of small RNA by HPLC --
7.7.2. mRNA isolation by affinity chromatography --
7.8. Isolation of RNA from small numbers of cells --
7.9. In vitro synthesis of RNA --
7.10. Assessment of quality and quantitation of RNA --
7.11. Storage of RNA --
References --
Chapter 8. Techniques for the extraction, isolation and purification of nucleic acids / Mahesh Karwa and Somenath Mitra --
8.1. Introduction --
8.2. Methods of cell lysis --
8.2.1. Mechanical methods of cell lysis --
8.2.2. Nonmechanical methods of cell lysis --
8.3. Isolation of nucleic acids --
8.3.1. Solvent extraction and precipitation --
8.3.2 Membrane filtration --
8.4. Chromatographic methods for the purification of nucleic acids --
8.4.1. Size-exclusion chromatography --
8.4.2. Anion-exchange chromatography --
8.4.3. Solid-phase extraction --
8.4.4. Affinity purification --
8.5. Automated high-throughput DNA purification systems --
8.6. Electrophoretic separation of nucleic acids. 8.6.1. Gel electrophoresis for nucleic acids purification --
8.6.2. Techniques for the isolation of DNA from gels --
8.7. Capillary electrophoresis for sequencing and sizing --
8.8. Microfabricated devices for nucleic acids analysis --
8.8.1. Sample preparation on microchips --
References --
Section C: Sample preparation in microscopy and spectroscopy --
Chapter 9: Sample preparation for microscope and spectroscopic characterization of solid surfaces and films / Sharmila M. Mukhopadhyay --
9.1. Introduction --
9.1.1. Microscopy of solids --
9.1.2. Spectroscopic techniques for solids --
9.2. Sample preparation for microscopic evaluation --
9.2.1. Sectioning and polishing --
9.2.2. Chemical and thermal etching --
9.2.3. Sample coating techniques --
9.3. Specimen thinning for TEM analysis --
9.3.1. Ion milling --
9.3.2. Reactive ion techniques --
9.3.3. Chemical polishing and electropolishing --
9.3.4. Tripod polishing --
9.3.5. Ultramicrotomy --
9.3.6. Special techniques and variations --
9.4. Summary : samples preparation for microscopy --
9.5. Sample preparation for surface spectroscopy --
9.5.1. Ion bombardment --
9.5.2. Sample heating --
9.5.3. In situ abrasion and scraping --
9.5.4. In situ cleavage or fracture stage --
9.5.5. Sample preparation/treatment options for in situ reaction studies --
9.6. Summary : sample preparation for surface spectroscopy --
References --
Chapter 10: Surface enhancement by sample and substrate preparation techniques in Raman and infrared spectroscopy / Zafar Iqbal --
10.1. Introduction --
10.1.1. Raman effect --
10.1.2. Fundamentals of surface-enhanced Ramen spectroscopy --
10.1.3. Attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy --
10.1.4. Fundamentals of surface-enhanced infrared spectroscopy --
10.2. Sample preparation for SERS --
10.2.1. Electrochemical techniques --
10.2.2. Vapor deposition and chemical preparation techniques --
10.2.3. Colloidal sol techniques --
10.2.4. Nanoparticle arrays and gratings --
10.3. Sample preparation for SEIRA --
10.4. Potential applications --
References.
Series Title: Chemical analysis, v. 162.
Responsibility: edited by Somenath Mitra.
Local System Bib Number:
(Sirsi) u188616
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